In part 1 of this series I examined the average brain size of Sapiens in the Middle Paleolithic (300 kya to 50 kya). In this article, I look at the Upper Paleolithic (50 kya to 12 kya) and once again I turn to DeSilva (2021) data-set ( considered the largest known data-set of directly measured ancient human crania)

The 115 specimens in this time period ranged from 1117 cc (Coobool creek, 14 kya) to 1775 cc (Grothes des infants 4, about 28 kya). The mean is 1459 (SD 143), vs 1452 (SD 129) in the Lower Paleolithic. Although it’s likely that brains got bigger as Sapiens left the tropics and headed North in the Upper Paleolithic, the observed difference here is not statistically significant.