Here’s an interesting quote from scholar Paul Broca which I found on page 83 of Stephen Jay Gould’s book The Mismeasure of Man:
A prognathous [forward-jutting] face, more or less black color of the skin, woolly hair and intellectual and social inferiority are often associated, while more or less white skin, straight hair and an orthognathous [straight] face are the ordinary equipment of the highest groups in the human series (1866, p. 280)….A group with black skin, woolly hair and a prognathous face has never been able to raise itself spontaneously to civilization (pp 295-296)
This quote is fascinating because it provides evidence for racial differences in intelligence, independent of IQ tests (indeed the quote predated IQ tests). It’s also interesting because HBD deniers will often say that the very idea of genetic differences in intelligence is meaningless because different genes react differently in different environments. So just because group A scores lower than group B in the United States doesn’t mean group A is genetically smarter, because maybe in some other country, group B would score higher than group A.
But Paul Broca is taking a historical perspective, and saying that at no point in history has a population with a common syndrome of genetic traits (dark skin, woolly hair, prognathous face) ever created a civilization. This suggests that genes that cause this phenotype also cause relatively low IQ, in whatever environment they are found in.
In his landmark 1974 book Race, scholar J.R. Baker listed 21 criteria for civilization (pp 507-508):
1. In the ordinary circumstances of life in public places, they cover the external genital organs and the greater part of the trunk with clothes.
2. They keep the body clean and take care to dispose of its waste products.
3. They do not practice severe mutilation or deformation of the body, except for medical reasons.
4. They have knowledge of building in brick or stone, if the necessary materials are available in their territory.
5. Many of them live in towns or cities, which are linked by roads.
6. They cultivate food plants.
7. They domesticate animals and use some of the larger ones for transport (or have in the past used them), if suitable species are available.
8. They have a knowledge of the use of metals, if these are available.
9. They use wheels.
10. They exchange property by the use of money.
11. They order their society by a system of laws, which are enforced in such a way that they ordinarily go about their various concerns in times of peace without danger of attack or arbitrary arrest.
12. They permit accused persons to defend themselves and to bring witnesses for their defense.
13. They do not use torture to extract information or for punishment.
14. They do not practice cannibalism.
15. Their religious systems include ethical elements and are not purely or grossly superstitious.
16. They use a script (not simply a succession of pictures) to communicate ideas.
17. There is some facility in the abstract use of numbers, without consideration of actual objects (or in other words, at least a start has been made in mathematics).
18. A calendar is in use, accurate to within a few days of the year.
19. Arrangements are made for the instruction of the young in intellectual subjects.
20. There is some appreciation of the fine arts.
21. Knowledge and understanding are valued as ends in themselves.
Baker found that Caucasoid populations developed all 21 components of civilization in four independent places:
1) The Sumerian in the valley of the Tigris and the Euphrates
2) The Cretan
3) The Indus Valley
4) Ancient Egypt
East Asians also scored a perfect 21, in China’s Sinic civilization. The Native Americans achieved roughly half of the 21 criteria in the Maya society of Guatemala and almost as much in the Inca and Aztec societies.
Virtually none of the 21 criteria for civilization were achieved by sub-Saharan Africans or Australian aborigines.
This historical evidence is extremely important because it suggests that modern racial differences in IQ go back thousands of years, and almost certainly tens of thousands of years and are not just cultural artifacts of modern American IQ testing. For example on page 111 of his book Understanding Human History, scholar Michael Hart writes: Indeed, it appears that not a single major invention of the last 20,000 years was made in sub-Saharan Africa.
By contrast, Hart claims that over 30,000 years ago, Europe already had the Aurignacian tool industry, cave paintings, and possibly sewing needles, and over 20,000 years ago, Europe had early ceramics, the Solutrean tool industry, and the bow and arrow, and over 10,000 years ago, Europe had the Magdalenian tool industry, harpoons, fish hooks, and spear throwers.