Barack Obama senior, who obtained a Harvard economics A.M. is an extreme example of the higher intelligence of immigrants from Africa
Recently it was brought to my attention by commenter “Swanknasty” that black populations in Britain are scoring quite well on IQ tests. I assume Swanknasty learned about this issue from the Occidentalist blog
I believe the above chart can be found here. On non-verbal reasoning (presumably the most culture reduced test) British whites scored 101.3 (standard deviation (SD) = 14.3) and British black Africans scored 94.1. For consistency, race scholar Richard Lynn calculates all IQs in reference to British whites, defined as having a mean of 100, and an SD of 15, so with reference to the British white distribution, British black Africans would have a mean IQ of 92:
100 – [(101.3 – 94.1)/14.3](15)
An IQ of 92 is quite high for population of African immigrants because scientist Richard Lynn estimated the average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans to be 67. However Lynn believes that bad environment (i.e. malnutrition) depresses the mean IQ of sub-Saharan Africa by 13 points, and that they actually have a genetic IQ of 80; a bit lower than the IQ of 85 Lynn found for African Americans, who Lynn felt got a 5 point IQ boost from their white admixture.
So if the average IQ in sub-Saharan Africa is 67, and if their genetic IQ is 80, why do Africans in Britain score 92?
Extreme selection for education
It’s important to understand just how highly selected African immigrants in Britain are. While only one in a 100 children in South Africa grow up to graduate from college, an astonishing 40% of Britain’s Africans have college degrees. This suggests that Africans who migrate to Britain are 2.07 SD more educated than the average sub-Saharan.
On page 291, of The g Factor, scientist Arthur Jensen writes: “In general, the number of years of education, for example, is correlated .60 to .70 with IQ.” Given that immigrants from Africa are +2.07 SD more educated than the general sub-Saharan population, and assuming IQ and education also correlate 0.65 in sub-Saharan Africa, simple regression predicts that immigrants from Africa will have IQs 0.65(2.07 SD) = 1.35 SD above the sub-Saharan mean. Assuming sub-Saharan Africans have a mean IQ of 67 and an SD of 15, this would give Africans immigrants in Britain a theoretical IQ of 87 just based on education alone.
Immigrants from Africa are way more prosperous than most sub-Saharan Africans
Africans who migrate to Britain are not just way more educated than the average African, they are also much, much richer, just by virtue of the fact that they have moved to Britain. As of 2008, 50% of sub-Saharan Africa lives on no more than a $1.25 a day. By contrast, only about one in 22,000 people in the UK live in comparable levels of poverty. Thus, simply by virtue of migrating to Britain, African immigrants are likely an astonishing +3.93 SD richer than the general sub-Saharan population (on average). According to Jensen, the correlation between IQ and income is 0.4. Assuming this applies in sub-Saharan Africa, we would expect those Africans adaptable enough to migrate to a place as rich as Britain to have an IQ of 0.4(3.93 SD) = +1.57 SD above the sub-Saharan mean of 67. In other words, an IQ of 91 would be expected, just based on income alone (assuming their incomes are typical of the British population as a whole).
But African immigrants are not just educated and rich; they’re BOTH!
Based on education alone, African immigrants in Britain should have a mean IQ of 87. Based on income alone, they should have a mean IQ of 91. But the fact that they are multi-talented enough to acquire both education and income implies they might be smarter still. How much smarter? In order to answer that question, we must apply a technique called multiple regression first taught to me by a member of Prometheus. Since we know the correlation between IQ and education is 0.65, and the correlation between IQ and income is 0.4, and assuming the correlation between education and income is also about 0.4, the following standardized regression formula can be built which estimates the predictive value of education and income, independent of one another.
IQ = 0.58(education) + 0.17(income)
So African immigrants in Britain, being +2.07 SD above sub-Saharans in education, and +3.93 SD in income, would have an expected IQ of:
IQ = 0.58(2.07 SD) + 0.17(3.93 SD)
IQ = 1.2 SD + 0.67 SD
IQ = 1.87 SD
In other words, based on their education and income together, we should expect African immigrants in Britain to be 1.87 SD smarter than the general sub-Saharan population, or roughly IQ 95.
How smart would their kids be?
If two typical African immigrants (IQ 95) in Britain had kids with one another, the mid-parent IQ (i.e. the average IQ of the two parents) would be 95. According to scientist Steve Hsu, the mid-parent-child IQ correlation is 0.6, so the children of two African immigrants would be only 60% as cognitively extreme as their parents on average. If African immigrants are 28 points smarter than sub-Saharan Africans on average, the IQ of their kids should be 28(0.6) = 17 points above the sub-Saharan African average. Thus 67 + 17 = 84
But if the children of these African immigrants are not born and conceived in sub-Saharan Africa, but in Britain which has much better nutrition and living standards, their IQs should be 13 points higher than they would have been in Africa. Thus:
84 + 13 = 97
Thus the children of Britain’s African immigrants should average somewhere between 84 and 97, depending on whether they’re first, second, or third generation.
Now if an African immigrant (IQ 95) mates with a white (IQ 100), the African parent would be 28 points smarter than his race, and the white parent’s IQ would 0 points smarter than her race, so on average, they are 14 points smarter than their race. Thus the IQ of their mullato kids would be 14(0.6)= 8 points smarter than the mulatto mean. The mean white has an IQ of 100 and the mean African has an IQ of 67. But as mentioned, the African IQ of 67 is depressed by malnutrition and black Africa’s genetic IQ is likely 80, so averaging this with the white mean of 100 gives 90 as the genetic mean of mulattoes. So the children of African immigrants who mate with whites would have an IQ of:
90 + 8 = 98
[caption width="3598" align="alignnone"] British actress & Cambridge grad Thandie Newton is an example of a brilliant mulatto who’s black half is an immigrant from Africa
Some readers may dispute the idea that African IQs are depressed by 13 points, especially at the high end from which immigrants come. As noted above, the estimate is based on the fact that African Americans (without white admixture) have an IQ around 80 according to Lynn (13 points higher than the IQ of 67 Lynn finds in black Africa). The notion that black Africans have phenotypes nearly 1 SD below the phenotypes they would have had if born in the developed world is consistent with the fact that West Africans are several inches shorter than African Americans, as blogger Steve Sailer brilliantly noted many years ago.
But are elite Africans also nearly 1 SD below their genetic potential or does sub-optimum nutrition only impair the left half of the curve? I would argue that the effect is roughly similar across virtually the entire distribution. For example President Obama is roughly average height for a living American president and yet he towers over African leaders:
This demonstrates that even Africa’s elite suffers from sub-optimal nutrition and are thus significantly shorter than elites in the developed world. Furthermore, in the 19th century, British phenotypes were significantly depressed by malnutrition, and this extended to the upper classes. British scientist Francis Galton collected height data on various occupations and found that males aged 26+ of the Professional occupation (which was very elite in those days) averaged 67.91 inches tall (see table 10 in HBD Chick’s blog post) which is well below the average of young white men today and probably even more below the average if compared to today’s elite young white men. This is strong evidence that in malnourished societies, all social classes are afflicted.